CONE ALDER is beautiful permaculture tree all year round with reddish leaves in spring, hazel-green foliage in summer and masses of rustic brown cones hanging all winter. Cones make excellent handicraft material and provide wildlife food...maybe even survival food for humans. Great for stabilizing wet areas and riparian buffers. Fixes nitrogen in soil thereby enriching soil fertility. Cone Alder wood is water(rot) resistant so can be used for decoys, wharfs, posts, decks, children's playground slides, etc. This eliminates need for toxic chemicals to protect the wood from rotting. Absolutely best plant species for wet, heavy clay areas where very little else will grow. We planted a line of cone alders in a low lying wet field about 20 years ago and now the original cone alders have spread (by self seeding) to cover the wet area to form a beautiful functional shelterbelt, wildlife refuge and food forest. Our cone alders trees have survived very cold winters( -35 to -40 C) and are are easy to prune or cut to keep size and spreading under control. This year (2017) we are selling a package of 2 cone alders for $70 to encourage more planting of this valuable tree.(cone alder were $45 each in 2016).